Citizenship-by-Investment programmes (CBIs) are government schemes based on a clearly defined legal framework, wherein foreign nationals and their families can apply for alternative citizenship by investing a minimum amount in a specified government-approved project, fund, or sector of the economy.
Citizenship-by-Investment programmes are at the core of the migration industry, with 30 countries currently offering Citizenship-by-Investment or Residence-by-Investment programmes (RBIs) in hopes of appealing to High-Net-Worth Individuals and investors. In addition to financial criteria – which define the necessary investment’s nature and amount – various other personal criteria must be met, including strong personal or professional connections to the country or valuable expertise in a particular field.
Citizenship-by-Investment programmes are governed by ‘Citizenship by Naturalization’ legislation, which ultimately grants the successful applicants full citizenship rights and obligations. Benefits include greater freedom of movement and a right to work and study in the country they have invested in or even the wider region.